Now the problem of inflation remains especially actual for Russia, as inflationary processes negatively affect social and economic development of the country. The adverse effects of inflation give rise to the need for strengthening of anti-inflation policy. For her successful realization, first of all, it is necessary to investigate the contradictory reasons of development of inflationary processes as their incorrect identification can promote not decrease in growth rates of an overall price level, and on the contrary — to their increase. In the article the tendencies of the modern state of the Russian economy identified and analyzed the causes, characteristics and growth rate of inflation. Extent of influence of various factors on development of inflationary processes in the country is revealed, and it is defined that the prevailing role is played by expensive factors of inflation in this connection it is necessary to correct the pursued anti-inflationary policy taking into account this feature. The interrelation of development of inflationary processes in the country and rates of change of price indexes and tariffs for production of natural monopolies, dynamics of an exchange rate, inflationary expectations, etc. is analyzed. Mechanisms of inflation of demand and expenses are considered, and arguments owing to prevailing like inflation in modern economy of Russia are given. Considering open character of economy of our country, factors of the external economic inflation are revealed. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of anti-inflationary policy recommendations for improving ways of reducing rates of rising prices, used at the present time. The main concepts of an anti-inflationary policy for the purpose of identification of opportunities of their use in economy of Russia are investigated now. The measures are proposed to reduce inflation at the present stage of economic development of the country.