The paper is devoted to highlight R&D expenditures in some Siberian regions and administrative-territorial units of the BRICS countries. «Resource type» regions with basic mining industries and/or primary processing manufacturing industries that produce raw materials and intermediate products are selected to conduct analysis. These industries are the basis for the Russian economy and define its place in the international labor division. Administrative-territorial units of the BRICS countries are interesting to compare because of their recent success in the economic development that is some kind of mark in the context of the Russian economy transition on the innovative development path. It is shown that the «resource type» Siberian regions maintained parity with the states of Brazil, the provinces of China and South Africa, and were ahead of the states of India according to the R&D expenditures and the share of R&D expenditures in the GRP. On the other hand, a significant gap between the Siberian regions according to these indicators was revealed.