2022 (19), №2

The Golden Ratio in Marriage Markets: the Allocation of Time in the Patriarchal and Modern Family

For citation: 

Malakhov, S. V. (2022). The Golden Ratio in Marriage Markets: the Allocation of Time in the Patriarchal and Modern Family. AlterEconomics, 19(2), 239-261.  https://doi.org/10.31063/AlterEconomics/2022.19-2.3

Abstract:

The paper seeks to uncover the roots of different time allocation patterns in the preindustrial and modern family. It analyzes the model of the preindustrial family where the hunter and the housewife share the quarry and leisure. The husband allocates his time between hunting, men’s house work, and leisure while the wife allocates her time between women’s house work, a part of men’s house work, and leisure. When the partners’ unit attractiveness is unequal, the more attractive spouse gets extra leisure time. When the unit attractiveness of the husband and wife is equal, they spend all leisure time together. As a result, their allocation of time is determined by the golden ratio, which equalizes their total attractiveness or gravitation fields. The hunter and the housewife spend some time on house work together, but their total leisure time slightly exceeds six hours and a half. This result corresponds to the field studies of natural sleep in African and Latin American pre-industrial societies and to the historical analysis of the sleeping habits before the industrial revolution. Adherence to the golden ratio principle produces a model of ideal family. This model discovers the difference in the allocation of time in the patriarchal and modern family. The correspondence between the mathematical model and the existing research evidence leads us to the assumption that in preindustrial societies the family was seen as a means of survival. Today the family and family-based division of labor have lost their original economic meaning. The model of ideal family shows that additional leisure time results from the social limits on work time; this additional leisure exceeds the need in survival and meets increasing wants.

PDF full
Downloaded: 48

Sergey V. MALAKHOV,  Doctor of Economics,  Pierre Mendès-France University, Grénoble-Alpes, France, e-mail: serguei.malakhov@orange.fr,  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4805-0635

Aguiar, M. & Hurst, E. (2007). Measuring Trends in Leisure: The Allocation of Time Over Five Decades.  The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(3),  969–1006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/qjec.122.3.969.

Alvarez-Cuadrado, F. (2007). Envy, leisure, and restrictions on working Hours.  Canadian Journal of Economics, 40(4),  1286–1310. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365–2966.2007.00452.x.

Becker, G. (1994). Vybor partnera na brachnykh rynkakh [Assortative Mating in Marriage Markets].  THESIS, 6,  12–36. (In Russ.)

Cohen, I. B. (1994). Newton and the social sciences, with special reference to economics, or, the case of the missing paradigm.  Natural Images in Economic Thought: “Markets Read in Tooth and Claw”.  In Philip Mirowski (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, 55–90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511572128.003.

Ekirch, A. R. (2001). Sleep We Have Lost: pre-industrial slumber in the British Isles.  The American Historical Review, 106(2),  343–386. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/106.2.343.

Ekirch, A. R. (2006).  At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past.  New York: W.W. Norton, 480.

Ekirch, A. R. (2021).  The Great Sleep Transformation: How the Industrial Revolution Changed Our Nights.  Amsterdam, 196.

Garnier, G. (2013).  L’oublie des peines : une histoire du sommeil (1700–1850).  Presses universitaires de Rennes, 420. DOI : 10.4000/books.pur.133260.

Gimenez-Nadal, J. I. & Sevilla, A. (2012). Trends in Time Allocation: a cross-country analysis.  European Economic Review, 56(6),  1338–1359. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2012.02.011.

Larsons, D. M. & Shaikh, S. L. (2004). Recreation Demand Choices and Revealed Values of Leisure Time.  Economic Inquiry, 42(2),  264–278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ei/cbh059.

Léger D., Richard J.-B. et al. (2019). Le Temps de Sommeil en France.  BEH, 8–9,  145–174.

Malakhov, S. (2020). Userdie potrebiteley kak estestvennoe sredstvo preodoleniya pobochnykh effektov [Consumers’ Diligence as a Natural Way to Cope with Externalities: from the Coase theorem to the invisible hand].  Zhurnal institutsional’nykh issledovaniy [Journal of Instittutional Studies], 12(1),  38–65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17835/2076–6297.2020.12.1.038–065. (In Russ.)

Malakhov, S. (2021). Golden Ratio of Invisible Hand: does the gravitation matter?  MPRA Paper, 111298.

Malakhov, S. (2021a). Sila Nevidimoy ruki, trud i spravedlivaya tsena: bazovye printsipy sortirovki i skhozhdeniya v usloviyakh razbrosa zarabotnoy platy i tsen [Force of invisible hand, labor, and just price: basic principles of sorting and matching under wage and price dispersion].  Zhurnal institutsional’nykh issledovaniy [Journal of Instittutional Studies], 13(1),  37–59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17835/2076–6297.2021.13.1.037–059. (In Russ.)

Malakhov, S. (2021b). Ravnovesie « nevidimoy ruki» v sem’e: sila prityazheniya mezhdu muzhchinoy i zhenshchinoy na brachnykh rynkakh [Equilibrium of Invisible Hand in the Family: the Gravitation between Men and Women in Marriage Markets].  Zhurnal ekonomicheskoj teorii [Russian Journal of Economic Theory], 18(3),  357–373. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31063/2073–6517/2021.18–3.3. (In Russ.)

Malakhov, S. (2022). Bozhestvennaya proportsiya Nevidimoy ruki: novyy vzglyad na estestvennuyu teologiyu Adama Smita’ [Divine Proportion of the Invisible Hand: a new look at Adam Smith’s natural theology.].  Zhurnal institutsional’nykh issledovaniy [Journal of Institutional Studies], 14(1),  36–54. DOI: 10.17835/2076–6297.2022.14.1.036–054. (In Russ.)

Nikolic, S. T., Cosic, I. et al. (2011). The Effect of the ‘Golden Ratio’ on Consumer Behavior.  African Journal of Business Management, 5(20),  8347–8360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM11.202.

Nureev, R. M. & Orekhovskiy, P. A. (2021). Diskussii vokrug osnovnogo proizvodstvennogo otnosheniya v politekonomii sotsializma: kognitivnyy tupik 1970-kh [Debates around the Basic Production Relationship in Political Economy of Socialism: The Cognitive Deadlock in the 1970s.].  Zhurnal ekonomicheskoj teorii [Russian Journal of Economic Theory], 18(2),  185–196. DOI: . https://doi.org/10.31063/2073–6517/2021.18–2.2. (In Russ.)

Ozturk, S., Yalta, K. & Yetkin, E. (2016). Golden Ratio: a subtle regulator in our body ans cardiovascular system?  International Journal of Cardiology, 223,  143–145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.08.147.

Pacioli, L. (1509).  De divina proportione opera a tutti gli’ingegni perspicaci e curiosi necessaria […].  Venice: Alessandro and Paganino de’ Paganini.

Pacioli, L. (1494).  Suma de Arithmetica Geometria Proportioni & Proportionalita.  Venezia: Paganino de Paganini.

Ricardo, D. (2015).  On the Principles of Political Economy, and Taxation.  UK: Cambridge University Press, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107589421.

Ruggeri, G. (2020).  The Allocation of Time in America 2003 and 2018.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3622724.

Smith, A. (2000).  The Wealth of Nations.  New York, the USA: Random House Publishing Group, 1200.

Yetish, G., Kaplan, H. et al. (2015). Natural Sleep and Its Seasonal Variations in Three Pre-Industrial Societies.  Current Biology, 25(21),  2862–2868. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.09.046.