The article presents the evolution of scientific ideas about the importance of supporting small and medium-sized enterprises and the role of development institutions. With the use of tools of categorical-system methodology is worked out a model of systematization of development institutions, based on three theoretical approaches to their classification (objectives, levels, stages). It is shown stages of development of institutions and problems of development of business in Russia, as well as the specifics of their formation in the Sverdlovsk region. The existence of a variety of development institutions which have the potential to perform elements of the all-Russian system does not lead to the formation of complete chains of their interaction and the emergence of the system properties. The authors justified the necessity of interaction between institutions of business development, aimed at carrying out a deliberate policy of entrepreneurship development at the federal and regional levels.