The article discusses the fate of political economy in the conditions of modern historical challenges. Genesis is revealed the birth of political economy and transforming it into economics. Justifying the existence crisis of mainstream, shows his inability to respond to the socio-economic challenges of our time. Given the basic characteristics of modern world and local calls. Demonstrates the need for the return of political economy in research and teaching activities. Disclosed organizational steps to return the political economy that began in Russia after the education at 2011 year International Economics Association of post-Soviet countries. Overview of the major speeches at the second international political economy Congress, held in may 2015 year in Moscow. It is proposed that the author’s vision of the main characteristics of modern political economy. It includes a multidisciplinary approach to solve the problems, the emergence of integrative economy, moving from the principle of individualism to the principle of coordinated action, use the antropostrategičeskogo method, the development philosophy of management. Given the outcome of the second international politèkonomičeskogo Congress and summary conclusions.