The problems of the formation and evolution of the institutional environment, determining the direction of development of mineral resources, are considered in the article. It is noted that domestic approaches to the rationale and decision-making in the field of development of mineral resources in a weak account of the rapidly changing conditions of the functioning of the sector of the modern economy and back to the characteristics of the industrial economy. Strengthening the role of the knowledge economy leads to the fact that significantly changes the perception of rational strategies for exploration and development of deposits and mining sources. Among the most important aspects and features of the rules and procedures that determine the approaches to the development of mineral resources in modern conditions include: increasing the role of knowledge, the transition from the linear forms of interaction between participants in the process of prospecting and exploration of mineral resources to the network; Time alignment and within the framework of a series of integrated technologies previously disparate steps (these changes are largely due to the increase of volatility in the economy and the natural resources sector). Development of resource regimes in marked direction associated with an increased degree of flexibility of the entire study system, regulating the use of the mineral resource potential of the country.