The relevance of the article is determined by strategic priorities to the development of international economic cooperation of Russia in new geo-economic space caused by the formation of the new world economic structure. In terms of the change of world economic structure, the importance of the institutes of the international economic cooperation as well as scientific-technological one increases. The goal of the article is to define the prospects of the development of the institutes of international economic cooperation on the example of the Russian-Vietnamese scientific-technological cooperation. The following problems are formulated: to analyze the specifics of the institutes of cooperation in new geo-economic space, as well as the problems and prospects of Russian-Vietnamese scientific- technological cooperation in these terms. In the research process, the authors have applied the theses of institutional theory as well as the theory of world economic structures evolution, the questionnaire survey and interviewing of the representatives of the research institutions of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (UB RAS) on how they understand the problems and prospects of Russian-Vietnamese scientific-technological cooperation. We have analyzed its prospects on the example of the relations with Vietnam – the most important strategic partner of Russia in South-East Asia. The results of the questionnaire survey of the representatives of the scientific society of UB RAS testify the interest of researchers in scientific cooperation with Vietnamese institutions in various directions. One of the prospects for the development of corresponding institutes is the creation of a centre for the coordination of the countries’ cooperation in the scientific-educational sphere.