An overview of the evolution of economic theories, catch, which led to the formation of their modern ways. Determining the place is analyzing the emergence of classical, neoclassical and Keynesian doctrines. This contributed to the growth and development of the productive forces (factors of production), the formation of large corporate monopolies and technological progress. Powerful global crises (1929-1933) and other upheavals of the capitalist system gave rise to an alternative theory of the classical theory of doctrinal. It acted as a theoretical and methodological framework of System for half a century. Replaced by neoliberal and monetarist theories shown to be ineffective during the global crisis and the Great Depression (2008 — 2013). Addressed are issues on necessity to change the economic policy of Russia, strengthened by the course of the West, trying to strangle the country through sanctions.