2023 (20), №2

Old-Age Pension Systems in Modern Socialist Countries: A Comparative Analysis



For citation: 

Moseiko, V. V. (2023). Old-Age Pension Systems in Modern Socialist Countries: A Comparative Analysis. AlterEconomics, 20(2), 392–414. https://doi.org/10.31063/AlterEconomics/2023.20-2.6


This article provides an overview of old-age pension systems in contemporary socialist countries, namely China, North Korea, the Republic of Cuba, Vietnam, and Lao PDR. The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the distinctive characteristics of these systems. Through an examination of academic literature on pension organization and financing, as well as data from the World Bank, OECD, ILO, ASEAN, and statistical departments (USSR, China), the study analyzes the old age pension systems of each country, identifying commonalities and unique features. The study identifies elements aligned with global practices, socialist characteristics, and national peculiarities. Initially, all of the given countries adopted distribution-based pension arrangements that are prevalent worldwide. However, as the systems evolved, distinguishing features emerged, such as pension income inequality and privileges for specific population segments. Moreover, the study explores country-specific features influenced by the national economic context. The impact of the informal sector and illicit income on old-age pensions is uncovered, alongside the significant role of family support. Possible future scenarios for the development of old-age pensions in these countries are proposed.

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Victoria V. Moseiko — Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Theory and Instrumental Methods, Kaliningrad State Technical University; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8574-222X (32, Maly all., Kaliningrad, 236039, Russian Federation; e-mail: vimoseiko@gmail.com).

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