The study of the verity of the issues of intellectual property in the scientific and technological sphere, its implementation in practice is a priority research for achieving a high level of innovation in the economy of the country and regions. At the same time, the theoretical and methodological base of this comprehensive subject has not been developed sufficiently, especially taking into account its genesis, specifics and contemporary trends in evolution. In addition, there are significant differences in the views of researchers on the fundamental characteristics of the intellectual property, as it is considered either as a legal concept or an economic and legal category. The purpose of this study is to develop and substantiate the theoretical foundations and methodological tools for studying the modern institution of intellectual property. The author’s development of the category of intellectual property in the scientific and technological sphere and the specifics of the corresponding relations in the structural-functional, phased and interdisciplinary views of its reproduction are proposed. The author specifies the number of modern factors and trends of the evolution of intellectual property in Russia, which determine the transformation of the institutional design of transactions in the process of its commercialization. The author’s perspective of the methodological toolkit is presented as a synthesis of socio-economic and economic-legal developments, dialectical connection of a number of interdisciplinary directions. I highlight a theoretical platform for the development of a general theory of intellectual property. In the study, the author applied the reproductive, dialectical, analytical-gnoseological and system-integration methods. The results of this study can be taken into account in developing managerial decisions by the relevant structures responsible for scientific, technological and innovation policies at all levels of government and administration.