The article summarizes methods for assessing state aid (preferences) in the European Union and the Russian Federation. Systematized theoretical approaches to understanding the content of state aid. The subject of research is in the identification of sources of distortion of competition and to determine the role of state aid in their elimination, as well as identifying negative consequences of unjustified state aid for competitors and the market. Presents the results of studies of the dynamics structure of government (municipal) preferences according to their types and aims of the Russian Federation, the Ural Federal District and Sverdlovsk region, the results received antitrust authority in E-solutions for the consideration of applications for the granting of preferences. Analysis of domestic and foreign experience allowed us to formulate a number of approaches to provide improvement of antimonopoly control state (municipal) preferences in the Russian Federation.